The gem’s name is simply derived from the very mundane Greek ‘smaragdos’, for ‘green gem’. While dating back to antiquity regarding their actual usage, some emeralds are nearly 3 million years old. Egyptians began mining the stone around 1500 BC, and it is said that it was one of Cleopatra’s favorites. The Romans also associated it with Venus, the goddess of love. However, not all associations were positive; people in the Middle Ages believed that emeralds came from Lucifer’s crown, tumbling to the Earth when he fell from Heaven. Although used by the Incas, it was the colonization of the area by the Spanish Empire that subsequently led to the emergence of a worldwide trade of emeralds. They can be found mostly in South America in Colombia and Brazil but are also in large abundance in Zambia.